By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The creation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized scientific imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photos of the human physique, with giant distinction among forms of gentle tissue. the long-lasting legacy of CT is, even though, the spur that it gave to the next creation of tomographic imaging innovations into diagnostic nuclear drugs and the terribly quick improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This publication is a non-mathematical creation to the foundations underlying glossy clinical imaging, taking tomography as its vital subject. the 1st 3 chapters conceal the overall rules of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins glossy imaging, and a overview of the major concerns serious about radiation defense. the next chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The scientific function of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by utilizing fictional medical histories. 3 appendices supply a extra mathematical historical past to the tomographic approach, the rules of mathematical Fourier equipment, and the maths of MRI.
This revised version contains new introductory sections at the correct physics of molecules regularly, and water, particularly. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. numerous figures have additionally been revised.
The ebook is meant to supply a wide introductory historical past to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate deliberating focusing on clinical physics, and the scientific scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic suggestions in learn and scientific perform.
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Additional info for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
Failure to observe this will result in gross image artefacts as a direct consequence of the Fourier scheme. The Number of Projections In every technology a particular expanse of a slice, called the field of view (FOV), is selected for image reconstruction. Whatever the scheme used to sample Fourier space, each projection will span the field of view in one direction with, say N, discrete points. If the FOV has dimensions L × L, then the interval between points, along one direction will be L/N. The smallest K value will be K min = 2π/L and the maximum value of K will be K max = πN/L.
The term ‘K-space’ refers to a map of the amplitudes of all these hypothetical waves that can be considered to make up the image. They are laid out on a Cartesian grid with K x , parallel to x and Ky parallel to y. The amplitude at each point can be represented by a line along Z (perpendicular to the page) or more conventionally by a colour scale. 4. 4 The monochrome Hokusai, in the top left panel, is Fourier transformed to produce its K-space map in the top right-hand panel. The K-space map is filtered, to reduce the amplitudes of the larger K values (shorter waves) in the bottom right-hand panel.
X-ray CT on its own has been a remarkably successful innovation in medicine. Even medium sized hospitals routinely use CT for the rapid assessment of structural abnormality resulting from injury or disease throughout the body. CT has also become a standard tool in the planning of cancer radiation treatment. The CT image often provides a clear definition of the extent of the tumour and its disposition with respect to Introduction xli surrounding healthy tissue. The intrinsically digital format of CT allows the radiologist to calculate optimum paths for the therapy beams to deliver a lethal dose to the cancer but spare healthy tissue.
An introduction to the principles of medical imaging by Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche