By Ingalis A.G. (ed.)
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A BSE that strikes the active area generates electron-hole pairs at the pnjunction of the detector, which is formed at the interface between p- and n-type doped Si. The electron and holes are separated in the electrical ﬁeld of the space charge region; this leads to a current pulse which is transformed to a voltage pulse with the help of an external resistor. While solid-state detectors usually have slow acquisition rates compared to scintillators and ET detectors, their main advantage is that signals from the individual segments can be combined to obtain various contrast mechanisms.
Under these circumstances, the resolution in the SE images is much better than that of BSE images, due to the reasons mentioned above. 3 Channeling Contrast Until now, the ways in which crystal orientation can inﬂuence the SE and BSE efﬁciency, and hence the contrast in the image, have not been discussed. Primary electrons can penetrate more deeply into the crystal along certain crystallographic orientations (channeling), compared to a random grain orientation. Accordingly, the efﬁciency (g) of BSE generation becomes lower when crystals are oriented in speciﬁc crystallographic orientations; in addition, the secondary electron yield d is also reduced.
This will add intensity to the darker, high-angle scattering regions and reduce intensity in the low-angle scattering region – that is, closer to the forward direction. The diffracted beams lie on so-called Kossel cones with a half angle of 90 B (where B is the Bragg angle). The intersection of the Kossel cones with the plane of the detector are hyperbolae, but as all of the scattering angles are small the light and dark lines will appear straight and parallel. The distance between the lines is proportional to 2B and thus (for small angles) inversely proportional to the interplanar spacing.
Amateur telescope making by Ingalis A.G. (ed.)