By K. Siegbahn
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Extra info for Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy
F r o m W a l s k e 27 INTERACTION OF α-Ρ ARTICLES CH. I 26 263 Bethe and coworkers ' * have derived a correction term CK for the inefficiency of K-electrons which gives for the stopping number 2 2mv B = Z\n—i C K. (11) The term CK is shown in Fig. 2 7 as a function of 5 and 2 2 \ M (Z — 0 . 8MeV α-rays in air. 2. CAPTURE AND LOSS OF ELECTRONS For very low velocities, the charge ze of the α-particle is no longer a constant. Elec trons can be captured and lost. The most important process is He+ ^ He++ + e~ where we can define a mean free path Ac for capture and another, λ ι , for loss of an electron.
17 M . Stobbe, A n n . Physik 7 (1930) 661. 18 H . Hall, R e v s . Modern Phys. 8 (1936) 358. R. T. McGinnies, X-ray Attenuation Coefficients from 10 k e V t o 100 M e V , N a t l . Bur. Standards 19 Supplement t o Circular 583 (1959). F. Sauter, A n n . Physik 11 (1931) 454. 44 C H . II C . M. DAVISSON 4 y (y-2) 3 y+ 1 2 2 (13) 2y (y - 11)* y - (y - 1 ) 7 2y(y 2 2 2 1 720 Here y = 1/(1 — β )* = (Λν + mc )/mc , β = v/c with ν the photoelectron velocity, 1 and the other symbols have been defined above.
L. Tabern, Nucleonics 8 (1951) 12. L. Katz and A . S. Penfold, Rev. M o d . Phys. 2 4 (1952) 30. CH. I 23 INTERACTION OF ELECTRONS - 143 2 54 Fig. 25 μ/ρ = 1 7 . 0 £ · [cm /g]. Also Seren measured the mass absorption coefficients for a large number of /J-emitters. It should be noted that the geometry of these experiments plays an important role, so that deviations from the relation given Γ" 14 V _ \ S Ε \ Ε -ΊΟ, , υ f • I - 35 45 60 c a \co 82 \ΒΓ 35 ForS 4 189 Au 32 Data obtained with • Aluminium absorbers| oAir(counter zero) 10' V AHelium used to 16 0 d i s p l a c e air -Extrapolation of d a t a 10' 0 Fig.
Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy by K. Siegbahn